The Effectiveness of Co-Teaching in Middle School ELA Inclusion Classrooms


  • Sarah Joanne Hays Texas State University
  • Janna Brendle Texas Tech University
  • Robin Lock Texas Tech University



inclusion, co-teaching, professional development


The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways in which co-teaching strategies were used in 4th to 8th grade English Language Arts inclusion classrooms. Through the use of a qualitative approach, data collection included interviews, a focus group, and surveys. The following themes were revealed: advantages of co-teaching, weaknesses of co-teaching, and planning. In addition, a theme of inconsistency was discovered. Results indicated that all of the participants used the one teach, one assist approach regularly. Teachers identified problems with implementing co-teaching such as lack of time to plan, classroom support, and professional development.


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How to Cite

Hays, S. J., Janna Brendle, & Lock, R. (2023). The Effectiveness of Co-Teaching in Middle School ELA Inclusion Classrooms. Texas Educator Preparation, 7(2), 73–89.